Congenital kidney diseases are those that the cat has had from birth. They may or may not have been inherited from the cat's parents.
Some of the more common congenital kidney diseases are listed below:
Polycystic Kidney Disease (PKD) is a condition in which cysts form in the kidneys, decreasing kidney function. It is most common in Persian and Exotic shorthair cats. Affected cats are born with lots of small cysts in their kidneys. As the cysts increase in size they compromise the surrounding normal kidney tissue, eventually causing kidney failure. Although this is a condition which is present from birth in affected cats, it may not be evident until later in life, depending on the number of cysts present and speed at which they are enlarging.
Renal Aplasia is when a kitten is born missing one or both kidneys.
Renal Hypoplasia is when the kidneys have a reduced number of functioning nephrons.
Renal Dysplasia is when the kidneys develop abnormally.
Amyloidosis is also listed under acquired kidney diseases, but it can be inherited in Abyssinian cats. It is a disorder by which insoluble protein fibres are deposited in various organs of the body. When it occurs in the kidneys, their function is impaired and chronic renal failure can result.